MirOS Manual: sa(8)

SA(8)                    BSD System Manager's Manual                     SA(8)


     sa - print system accounting statistics


     sa [-abcDdfijKklmnqrstu] [-v cutoff] [file ...]


     The sa utility reports on, cleans up, and generally maintains system ac-
     counting files.

     sa is able to condense the information in /var/account/acct into the sum-
     mary files /var/account/savacct and /var/account/usracct, which contain
     system statistics according to command name and login ID, respectively.
     This condensation is desirable because on a large system,
     /var/account/acct can grow by hundreds of blocks per day. The summary
     files are normally read before the accounting file, so that reports in-
     clude all available information.

     If file names are supplied, they are read instead of /var/account/acct.
     After each file is read, if the summary files are being updated, an up-
     dated summary will be saved to disk. Only one report is printed, after
     the last file is processed.

     The labels used in the output indicate the following, except where other-
     wise specified by individual options:

           avio   Average number of I/O operations per execution.
           cp     Sum of user and system time, in minutes.
           cpu    Same as cp.
           k      CPU time averaged core usage, in 1k units.
           k*sec  CPU storage integral, in 1k-core seconds.
           re     Real time, in minutes.
           s      System time, in minutes.
           tio    Total number of I/O operations.
           u      User time, in minutes.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      List all command names, including those containing unprintable
             characters and those used only once. By default, sa places all
             names containing unprintable characters and those used only once
             under the name "***other".

     -b      If printing command statistics, sort output by the sum of user
             and system time divided by number of calls.

     -c      In addition to the number of calls and the user, system and real
             times for each command, print their percentage of the total over
             all commands.

     -D      If printing command statistics, sort and print by the total
             number of disk I/O operations.

     -d      If printing command statistics, sort by the average number of
             disk I/O operations. If printing user statistics, print the aver-
             age number of disk I/O operations per user.

     -f      Force no interactive threshold comparison with the -v option.

     -i      Do not read in the summary files.

     -j      Instead of the total minutes per category, give seconds per call.

     -K      If printing command statistics, print and sort by the CPU-storage

     -k      If printing command statistics, sort by the CPU time average
             memory usage. If printing user statistics, print the CPU time
             average memory usage.

     -l      Separate system and user time; normally they are combined.

     -m      Print per-user statistics rather than per-command statistics.

     -n      Sort by number of calls.

     -q      Create no output other than error messages.

     -r      Reverse order of sort.

     -s      Truncate the accounting files when done and merge their data into
             the summary files.

     -t      For each command, report the ratio of real time to the sum of
             user and system CPU times. If the CPU time is too small to re-
             port, "*ignore*" appears in this field.

     -u      Superseding all other flags, for each entry in the accounting
             file, print the user ID, total seconds of CPU usage, total memory
             usage, number of I/O operations performed, and command name.

     -v cutoff
             For each command used cutoff times or fewer, print the command
             name and await a reply from the terminal. If the reply begins
             with "y", add the command to the category "**junk**". This flag
             is used to strip garbage from the report.

     By default, per-command statistics will be printed. The number of calls,
     the total elapsed time in minutes, total CPU and user time in minutes,
     average number of I/O operations, and CPU time averaged core usage will
     be printed. If the -m option is specified, per-user statistics will be
     printed, including the user name, the number of commands invoked, total
     CPU time used (in minutes), total number of I/O operations, and CPU
     storage integral for each user. If the -u option is specified, the uid,
     user and system time (in seconds), CPU storage integral, I/O usage, and
     command name will be printed for each entry in the accounting data file.

     If the -u flag is specified, all flags other than -q are ignored. If the
     -m flag is specified, only the -b, -d, -i, -k, -q, and -s flags are

     The sa utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.


     /var/account/acct     raw accounting data file
     /var/account/savacct  per-command accounting summary database
     /var/account/usracct  per-user accounting summary database


     lastcomm(1), acct(5), ac(8), accton(8)


     sa was written for NetBSD 0.9A from the specification provided by various
     systems' manual pages. Its date of origin is unknown to the author.


     Chris G. Demetriou, cgd@postgres.berkeley.edu


     While the behavior of the options in this version of sa was modeled after
     the original version, there are some intentional differences and undoubt-
     edly some unintentional ones as well. In particular, the -q option has
     been added, and the -m option now understands more options than it used

     The formats of the summary files created by this version of sa are very
     different than those used by the original version. This is not considered
     a problem, however, because the accounting record format has changed as
     well (since user ids are now 32 bits).


     The number of options to this program is absurd, especially considering
     that there's not much logic behind their lettering.

     The field labels should be more consistent.

     OpenBSD's VM system does not record the CPU storage integral.

MirOS BSD #10-current         February 25, 1994                              2

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