MirBSD manpage: 14.exref(USD)


                       Ex Reference Manual
                           Version 3.7

                           William Joy

                           Mark Horton

                    Computer Science Division
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
               University of California, Berkeley
                      Berkeley, Ca.  94720

                            ABSTRACT

          Ex is a line oriented text editor, which  supports
     both  command and display oriented editing. This refer-
     ence manual describes the command oriented part of  ex;
     the  display editing features of ex are described in An
     Introduction to Display Editing with  Vi.  Other  docu-
     ments about the editor include the introduction Edit: A
     tutorial, the Ex/edit Command Summary, and a  Vi  Quick
     Reference card.

1. Starting ex

     Each instance of the editor has a set of options, which  can
be set to tailor it to your liking.

     When invoked, ex determines the terminal type from the  TERM
variable  in  the  environment. If there is a variable NEXINIT in
the environment, then the editor will  execute  the  commands  in
that  variable,  otherwise  if  there is a variable EXINIT in the
environment, then the editor will execute the  commands  in  that
variable.  If  there  is  a file .nexrc in your HOME directory ex
reads commands from that file, simulating a source command.  Oth-
erwise,  if there is a file .exrc in your HOME directory, ex will
read that. Additionally, ex will read startup commands  from  the
current working directory, if they are placed in the files .nexrc
or .exrc. Option setting  commands  placed  in  NEXINIT,  EXINIT,
.nexrc, or .exrc will be executed before each editor session.

     A command to enter ex has the following prototype  (brackets
_________________________
The financial support of an IBM Graduate Fellowship and  the  Na-
tional   Science  Foundation  under  grants  MCS74-07644-A03  and
MCS78-07291 is gratefully acknowledged.

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`[' `]' surround optional parameters here):

        ex [-] [-FRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [+command] [file ...]

The most common case edits a single file with no options, i.e.:

        ex name

The - command line option option suppresses all  interactive-user
feedback  and  is  useful in processing editor scripts in command
files. The -s option is the POSIX equivalent to -; both forms are
identical.  The  -v  option is equivalent to using vi rather than
ex. The -t option is equivalent to an initial tag command,  edit-
ing the file containing the tag and positioning the editor at its
definition. The -r option is used in recovering after  an  editor
or  system  crash, retrieving the last saved version of the named
file or, if no file is specified, typing a list of  saved  files.
The -w option sets the default window size to n, and is useful on
dialups to start in small windows.

     The -R option sets the readonly option at the start. The  -S
option cause ex to be run with the secure option, disallowing all
access to external programs. The -F option prevents ex from copy-
ing  the entire file at startup (the default is to make a copy of
the file at startup).

     Name arguments indicate files to be edited. An  argument  of
the  form +command indicates that the editor should begin by exe-
cuting the specified command. If  command  is  omitted,  then  it
defaults to ``$'', positioning the editor at the last line of the
first file initially.  Other useful commands  here  are  scanning
patterns  of  the  form  ``/pat''  or line numbers, e.g. ``+100''
starting at line 100. The form -c cmd is the POSIX equivalent  to
+command; both forms are identical.

2. File manipulation

2.1. Current file

     Ex is normally editing the contents of a single file,  whose
name  is recorded in the current file name. Ex performs all edit-
ing actions in a buffer (actually a temporary  file)  into  which
the  text  of  the  file  is  initially read. Changes made to the
buffer have no effect on the file being edited unless  and  until
the buffer contents are written out to the file with a write com-
mand. After the buffer contents are written,  the  previous  con-
tents  of  the written file are no longer accessible. When a file
is edited, its name becomes the current file name, and  its  con-
tents are read into the buffer.

     The current file is almost always considered to  be  edited.
This  means  that  the  contents of the buffer are logically con-
nected with the current file name, so that  writing  the  current
buffer  contents  onto  that  file,  even  if  it  exists,  is  a

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reasonable action. If the current file is not edited then ex will
not normally write on it if it already exists.*

2.2. Alternate file

     Each time a new value is given to the current file name, the
previous  current  file name is saved as the alternate file name.
Similarly if a file is mentioned but does not become the  current
file, it is saved as the alternate file name.

2.3. Filename expansion

     Filenames within the editor may be specified using the  nor-
mal  shell  expansion conventions. In addition, the character `%'
in filenames is replaced by the current file name and the charac-
ter  `#'  by  the alternate file name. This makes it easy to deal
alternately with two files and eliminates the need  for  retyping
the  name supplied on an edit command after a No write since last
change diagnostic is received.

2.4. Multiple files and named buffers

     If more than one file is given on the command line, then the
first  file is edited as described above. The remaining arguments
are placed with the first file in the argument list. The  current
argument  list  may  be displayed with the args command. The next
file in the argument list may be edited with  the  next  command.
The argument list may also be respecified by specifying a list of
names to the next command. These names are expanded, the  result-
ing list of names becomes the new argument list, and ex edits the
first file on the list.

     For saving blocks of text while editing, and especially when
editing  more  than  one  file,  ex has a group of named buffers.
These are similar to the normal buffer, except that only  a  lim-
ited number of operations are available on them. The buffers have
names a through z. It is also possible to refer to A  through  Z;
the  upper  case  buffers  are the same as the lower but commands
append to named buffers rather than replacing if upper case names
are used.

2.5. Read only

     It is possible to use ex in read only mode to look at  files
that  you  have no intention of modifying. This mode protects you
from accidently overwriting the file. Read only mode is  on  when
the  readonly option is set. It can be turned on with the -R com-
mand line option, by the view command line invocation, or by set-
ting   the   readonly  option.  It  can  be  cleared  by  setting
noreadonly. It is possible to write,  even  while  in  read  only
_________________________
* The file command will say ``[Not edited]'' if the current  file
is not considered edited.

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mode, by indicating that you really know what you are doing.  You
can  write  to  a different file, or can use the ! form of write,
even while in read only mode.

3. Exceptional Conditions

3.1. Errors and interrupts

     When errors occur ex (optionally) rings  the  terminal  bell
and,  in  any  case,  prints an error diagnostic.  If the primary
input is from a file, editor processing will  terminate.   If  an
interrupt signal is received, ex prints ``Interrupt'' and returns
to its command level.  If the primary input is a  file,  then  ex
will exit when this occurs.

3.2. Recovering from hangups and crashes

     If a hangup signal is received and the buffer has been modi-
fied  since  it  was  last written out, or if the system crashes,
either the editor (in the first case) or  the  system  (after  it
reboots  in the second) will attempt to preserve the buffer.  The
next time you log in you should be able to recover the  work  you
were  doing,  losing at most a few lines of changes from the last
point before the hangup or editor crash.  To recover a  file  you
can use the -r option.  If you were editing the file resume, then
you should change to the directory where you were when the  crash
occurred, giving the command

        ex -r resume

After checking that the retrieved file  is  indeed  ok,  you  can
write it over the previous contents of that file.

     You will normally get mail from the system telling you  when
a file has been saved after a crash.  The command

        ex -r

will print a list of the files which have been saved for you. (In
the  case  of  a  hangup,  the  file will not appear in the list,
although it can be recovered.)

4. Editing modes

     Ex has five distinct modes.  The  primary  mode  is  command
mode.   Commands are entered in command mode when a `:' prompt is
present, and are executed each time a complete line is sent.   In
text  input  mode,  ex gathers input lines and places them in the
file.  The append, insert, and change  commands  use  text  input
mode.  No prompt is printed when you are in text input mode. This
mode is left by typing a `.' alone at the beginning  of  a  line,
and command mode resumes.

     The last two modes are visual mode, entered by  the  command

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of  the  same  name, and, within visual mode text insertion mode.
Visual mode allows local editing operations to  be  performed  on
the  text  in  the  file. Visual mode works on CRT terminals with
random positioning cursors, using the screen as a window for file
editing changes. These modes are described (only) in An Introduc-
tion to Display Editing with Vi.

5. Command structure

     Most command names are English words, and  initial  prefixes
of  the  words  are  acceptable  abbreviations.  The ambiguity of
abbreviations is resolved in favor of the more commonly used com-
mands.*

5.1. Command parameters

     Most commands accept prefix addresses specifying  the  lines
in  the  file  upon  which  they are to have effect. The forms of
these addresses will be discussed below.  A  number  of  commands
also may take a trailing count argument, specifying the number of
lines to be involved in the command. Counts are rounded  down  if
necessary.  Thus the command ``10p'' will print the tenth line in
the buffer while ``delete 5'' will delete  five  lines  from  the
buffer, starting with the current line.

     Some commands take other  information  or  parameters,  this
information  always  being given after the command name. Examples
would be option names in a set command  i.e.  ``set  number'',  a
file  name  in an edit command, a regular expression in a substi-
tute command, or a target address for a copy command, i.e.  ``1,5
copy 25''.

5.2. Command variants

     A number of commands have two distinct variants. The variant
form  of  the  command  is  invoked by placing an `!' immediately
after the command name. Some of the default variants may be  con-
trolled  by  options;  in this case, the `!' serves to toggle the
default.

5.3. Flags after commands

     The characters `#', `p' and `l' may  be  placed  after  many
commands.** In this case, the command abbreviated by these  char-
acters is executed after the command completes. Since ex normally
prints the new current line after  each  change,  `p'  is  rarely
necessary.  Any number of `+' or `-' characters may also be given
_________________________
* As an example, the command substitute can  be  abbreviated  `s'
while  the shortest available abbreviation for the set command is
`se'.
**  A `p' or `l' must be preceded by a blank or tab except in the
single special case `dp'.

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with these flags. If they appear, the specified offset is applied
to  the  current  line  value before the printing command is exe-
cuted.

5.4. Comments

     It is possible to give editor commands  which  are  ignored.
This  is useful when making complex editor scripts for which com-
ments are desired. The comment character is the double quote:  ".
Any  command line beginning with " is ignored. Comments beginning
with " may also be placed at the  ends  of  commands,  except  in
cases where they could be confused as part of text (shell escapes
and the substitute and map commands).

5.5. Multiple commands per line

     More than one command may be placed on a line by  separating
each pair of commands by a `|' character. However the global com-
mands, comments, and the shell escape `!' must be the  last  com-
mand on a line, as they are not terminated by a `|'.

5.6. Reporting large changes

     Most commands which change the contents of the editor buffer
give  feedback  if  the  scope  of the change exceeds a threshold
given by  the  report  option.  This  feedback  helps  to  detect
undesirably  large changes so that they may be quickly and easily
reversed with an undo. After commands  with  more  global  effect
such  as global or visual, you will be informed if the net change
in the number of lines in the buffer during this command  exceeds
this threshold.

6. Command addressing

6.1. Addressing primitives

.                   The current line.  Most  commands  leave  the
                    current  line  as  the  last  line which they
                    affect. The default address for most commands
                    is  the current line, thus `.' is rarely used
                    alone as an address.

n                   The nth line in the  editor's  buffer,  lines
                    being numbered sequentially from 1.

$                   The last line in the buffer.

%                   An  abbreviation  for  ``1,$'';  the   entire
                    buffer.

+n, -n              An offset  relative  to  the  current  buffer
                    line.*
_________________________
* The forms `.+3', `+3', and `+++' are  all  equivalent;  if  the

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/pat/, ?pat?        Scan forward and backward respectively for  a
                    line containing pat, a regular expression (as
                    defined  below).   The  scans  normally  wrap
                    around  the end of the buffer. If all that is
                    desired is to print the next line  containing
                    pat, then the trailing / or ? may be omitted.
                    If pat is omitted or explicitly  empty,  then
                    the  last  regular  expression  specified  is
                    located.*

'' 'x               Before  each  non-relative  motion   of   the
                    current  line  `.', the previous current line
                    is marked with a tag,  subsequently  referred
                    to  as  ''.  This  makes  it easy to refer or
                    return to this previous  context.  Marks  may
                    also  be  established  by  the  mark command,
                    using single lower case  letters  x  and  the
                    marked lines referred to as 'x.

6.2. Combining addressing primitives

     Addresses to commands consist  of  a  series  of  addressing
primitives,  separated  by  `,'  or  `;'.  Such address lists are
evaluated left-to-right. When addresses are separated by `;'  the
current  line  `.' is set to the value of the previous addressing
expression before  the  next  address  is  interpreted.  If  more
addresses  are  given than the command requires, then all but the
last one or two are ignored. If the command takes two  addresses,
the first addressed line must precede the second in the buffer.**

7. Command descriptions

     The following form is a prototype for all ex commands:

        address command ! parameters count flags

All parts are optional; the degenerate case is the empty  command
which prints the next line in the file.  For sanity with use from
within visual mode, ex ignores a ``:'' preceding any command.

     In the following command descriptions, the default addresses
are  shown  in  parentheses,  which are not, however, part of the
command.

_________________________
current line is line 100i, they all address line 103.
* The forms \/ and \? scan using the last regular expression used
in  a  scan;  after  a  substitute // and ?? would scan using the
substitute's regular expression.
**  Null  address  specifications  are permitted in a list of ad-
dresses, the default in this case is the current line  `.';  thus
`,100'  is equivalent to `.,100'. It is an error to give a prefix
address to a command which expects none.

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abbreviate word rhs                     abbr: ab

     Add the named abbreviation to  the  current  list.  When  in
     input  mode  in visual, if word is typed as a complete word,
     it will be changed to rhs.

( . ) append                            abbr: a
text
.

     Reads the input text and places it after the specified line.
     After  the command, `.' addresses the last line input or the
     specified line if no lines were input.  If  address  `0'  is
     given, text is placed at the beginning of the buffer.

a!
text
.

     The variant flag to  append  toggles  the  setting  for  the
     autoindent option during the input of text.

args

     The members of the  argument  list  are  printed,  with  the
     current argument delimited by `[' and `]'.

cd directory

     The cd command is a synonym for chdir.

( . , . ) change count                  abbr: c
text
.

     Replaces the  specified  lines  with  the  input  text.  The
     current  line  becomes the last line input; if no lines were
     input, it is left as for a delete.

c!
text
.

     The variant toggles autoindent during the change.

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chdir directory                         abbrev: chd

     The specified directory becomes the current directory. If no
     directory is specified, the current value of the home option
     is used as the target directory. After a chdir  the  current
     file  is  not  considered  to have been edited so that write
     restrictions on pre-existing files apply.

( . , . )copy addr flags                abbr: co

     A copy of the specified lines is placed  after  addr,  which
     may  be `0'. The current line `.' addresses the last line of
     the copy. The command t is a synonym for copy.

( . , . )delete buffer count flags      abbr: d

     Removes the specified lines from the buffer. The line  after
     the last line deleted becomes the current line; if the lines
     deleted were originally  at  the  end,  the  new  last  line
     becomes  the current line. If a named buffer is specified by
     giving a letter, then the specified lines are saved in  that
     buffer, or appended to it if an upper case letter is used.

edit file                               abbr: e
ex file

     Used to begin an editing session on a new file.  The  editor
     first  checks  to  see if the buffer has been modified since
     the last write command was issued. If it has been, a warning
     is  issued and the command is aborted. The command otherwise
     deletes the entire contents of the editor buffer, makes  the
     named  file  the  current  file and prints the new filename.
     After ensuring that this file is sensible* the editor  reads
     the file into its buffer.

     If the read of the file completes without error, the  number
     of  lines  and characters read is typed. If the last line of
     the input file is missing the trailing newline character, it
     will  be  supplied and a complaint will be issued. This com-
     mand leaves the current line `.' at the last line read.**

_________________________
* I.e., that it is not a special file  such  as  a  directory,  a
block  or character special file other than /dev/tty, or a termi-
nal.
** If executed from within visual, the current line is  initially
the first line of the file.

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e! file

     The variant form suppresses the  complaint  about  modifica-
     tions  having  been  made  and  not  written from the editor
     buffer, thus discarding all changes  which  have  been  made
     before editing the new file.

e +n file

     Causes the editor to begin at line n rather than at the last
     line;  n may also be an editor command containing no spaces,
     e.g.: ``+/pat''.

file                                    abbr: f

     Prints the current file name, whether it  has  been  `[Modi-
     fied]'  since  the  last  write  command, whether it is read
     only, the current line, the number of lines in  the  buffer,
     and  the  percentage  of  the  way through the buffer of the
     current line.*

file file

     The current file name is changed  to  file,  which  is  con-
     sidered `[Not edited]'.

( 1 , $ ) global /pat/ cmds             abbr: g

     First marks each line among those  specified  which  matches
     the given regular expression. Then the given command list is
     executed with `.' initially set to each marked line.

     The command list consists of the remaining commands  on  the
     current  input  line  and  may continue to multiple lines by
     ending all but the last such line with a `\'. If  cmds  (and
     possibly  the  trailing  /  delimiter) is omitted, each line
     matching pat is printed. Append, insert, and change commands
     and  associated  input  are  permitted;  the `.' terminating
     input may be omitted if it would be on the last line of  the
     command  list.  Visual commands are permitted in the command
     list and take input from the terminal.

     The global command itself may not appear in cmds.  The  undo
     command  is also not permitted there, as undo instead can be
_________________________
* In the rare case that the current file is `[Not  edited]'  this
is  noted also; in this case you have to use the form w! to write
to the file, since the editor is not sure that a write  will  not
destroy a file unrelated to the current contents of the buffer.

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     used to reverse the entire global command. The options auto-
     print  and  autoindent  are  inhibited during a global, (and
     possibly the trailing / delimiter)  and  the  value  of  the
     report  option  is  temporarily  infinite, in deference to a
     report for the entire global. Finally, the context mark ('')
     is  set to the value of `.' before the global command begins
     and is not changed during a global command,  except  perhaps
     by a visual within the global.

g! /pat/ cmds                           abbr: v

     The variant form of global runs cmds at each line not match-
     ing pat.

( . )insert                             abbr: i
text
.

     Places the given text before the specified line. The current
     line  is  left  at  the  last line input; if there were none
     input it is left at the line before the addressed line. This
     command differs from append only in the placement of text.

i!
text
.

     The variant toggles autoindent during the insert.

( . , .+1 ) join count flags            abbr: j

     Places the text from a specified range of lines together  on
     one line. Whitespace is adjusted at each junction to provide
     at least one blank character, two if there was a `.' at  the
     end of the line, or none if the first following character is
     a `)'. If there is already whitespace  at  the  end  of  the
     line, then the whitespace at the start of the next line will
     be discarded.

j!

     The variant causes a simpler join with  no  whitespace  pro-
     cessing;  the  characters  in  the  lines  are  simply  con-
     catenated.

( . ) k x

     The k command is a synonym for mark. It does not  require  a

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     blank or tab before the following letter.

( . , . ) list count flags

     Prints the specified lines in a more unambiguous  way:  tabs
     are  printed as `^I' and the end of each line is marked with
     a trailing `$'. The current line is left at  the  last  line
     printed.

map lhs rhs

     The map command is used to define macros for use  in  visual
     mode.  Lhs  should  be  a  single character, or the sequence
     ``#n'', for n a digit, referring to function  key  n.   When
     this  character  or function key is typed in visual mode, it
     will be as though the corresponding rhs had been  typed.  On
     terminals  without  function  keys, you can type ``#n''. See
     section 6.8 of the ``Introduction to  Display  Editing  with
     Vi'' for more details.

( . ) mark x

     Gives the specified line mark x, a single lower case letter.
     The  x  must be preceded by a blank or a tab. The addressing
     form 'x then addresses this line. The current  line  is  not
     affected by this command.

( . , . ) move addr                     abbr: m

     The move command repositions the specified lines to be after
     addr. The first of the moved lines becomes the current line.

next                                    abbr: n

     The next file from the command line argument list is edited.

n!

     The variant suppresses warnings about the  modifications  to
     the  buffer  not  having been written out, discarding (irre-
     trievably) any changes which may have been made.

n filelist
n +command filelist

     The specified filelist is expanded and  the  resulting  list
     replaces  the  current  argument list; the first file in the

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     new list is then edited. If command is given (it  must  con-
     tain no spaces), then it is executed after editing the first
     such file.

( . , . ) number count flags            abbr: # or nu

     Prints each specified  line  preceded  by  its  buffer  line
     number. The current line is left at the last line printed.

preserve                                abbrev: pre

     The current editor buffer is saved as though the system  had
     just  crashed.  This  command is for use only in emergencies
     when a write command has resulted in an error and you  don't
     know how to save your work. After a preserve you should seek
     help.

( . , . )print count                    abbr: p or P

     Prints the  specified  lines  with  non-printing  characters
     printed  as  control  characters `^x'; delete (octal 177) is
     represented as `^?'. The current line is left  at  the  last
     line printed.

( . )put buffer                         abbr: pu

     Puts back previously deleted or yanked lines. Normally  used
     with  delete  to  effect  movement of lines, or with yank to
     effect duplication of lines. If no buffer is specified, then
     the last deleted or yanked text is  restored.*  By  using  a
     named  buffer,  text may be restored that was saved there at
     any previous time.

quit                                    abbr: q

     Causes ex to terminate. No automatic  write  of  the  editor
     buffer  to a file is performed. However, ex issues a warning
     message if the file has changed since the last write command
     was issued, and does not quit.** Normally, you will wish  to
     save  your  changes, and you should give a write command; if
     you wish to discard them, use the q! command variant.

_________________________
* But no modifying commands may intervene between the  delete  or
yank  and  the  put, nor may lines be moved between files without
using a named buffer.
** Ex will also issue a diagnostic if there are more files in the
argument list.

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q!

     Quits from the editor,  discarding  changes  to  the  buffer
     without complaint.

( . ) read file                         abbr: r

     Places a copy of the text of the given file in  the  editing
     buffer  after  the  specified line. If no file is given, the
     current file name is used. The  current  file  name  is  not
     changed unless there is none, in which case file becomes the
     current name. The sensibility restrictions for the edit com-
     mand  apply here also. If the file buffer is empty and there
     is no current name then ex treats this as an edit command.

     Address `0' is legal for this command and causes the file to
     be read at the beginning of the buffer. Statistics are given
     as for the edit command  when  the  read  successfully  ter-
     minates.  After  a  read  the  current line is the last line
     read.*

( . ) read  !command

     Reads the output of the  command  command  into  the  buffer
     after  the specified line. This is not a variant form of the
     command, rather a read specifying a command  rather  than  a
     filename; a blank or tab before the ! is mandatory.

recover file

     Recovers file from the system save area. Used, for  example,
     after a remote  connection  has  timed  out**  or  a  system
     crash**  or  preserve  command. Except when you use preserve
     you will be notified by mail when a file is saved.

rewind                                  abbr: rew

     The argument list is rewound, and the first file in the list
     is edited.

rew!

     Rewinds the argument list discarding any changes made to the
_________________________
* Within visual mode, the current line is set to the  first  line
read rather than the last.
**  The  system saves a copy of the file you were editing only if
you have made changes to the file.

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     current buffer.

set parameter

     With no arguments, prints those options  whose  values  have
     been  changed  from  their  defaults;  with parameter all it
     prints all of the option values.

     Giving an option name followed by a `?' causes  the  current
     value  of  that option to be printed. The `?' is unnecessary
     unless the option is Boolean  valued.  Boolean  options  are
     given values either by the form `set option' to turn them on
     or `set nooption' to  turn  them  off;  string  and  numeric
     options are assigned via the form `set option=value'.

     More than one parameter may be given to set; they are inter-
     preted left-to-right.

shell                                   abbr: sh

     A new shell is created. When it terminates, editing resumes.

source file                             abbr: so

     Reads and executes commands from the specified file.  Source
     commands may be nested.

( . , . ) substitute /pat/repl/ options count flags abbr: s

     On each specified line, the first instance of pattern pat is
     replaced  by replacement pattern repl. If the global indica-
     tor option character `g' appears,  then  all  instances  are
     substituted;   if   the  confirm  indication  character  `c'
     appears, then before each substitution the line to  be  sub-
     stituted  is  typed with the string to be substituted marked
     with `^' characters. By typing a `y' one can cause the  sub-
     stitution  to be performed, any other input causes no change
     to take place. After a substitute the current  line  is  the
     last line substituted.

     Lines may be split by substituting new-line characters  into
     them.  The  newline  in repl must be escaped by preceding it
     with a `\'. Other metacharacters available in pat  and  repl
     are described below.

stop

     Suspends the editor, returning  control  to  the  top  level
     shell.  If autowrite is set and there are unsaved changes, a

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     write is done first unless the form stop! is used. This com-
     mand is only available where supported by the tty driver and
     operating system.

( . , . ) substitute options count flagsabbr: s

     If pat and repl are omitted, then the last  substitution  is
     repeated. This is a synonym for the & command.

( . , . ) t addr flags

     The t command is a synonym for copy.

tag tagstring                           abbrev: ta

     The focus of editing switches to the location of  tagstring,
     switching  to  a different line in the current file where it
     is defined, or if necessary to another file.*

     The tags file is normally  created  by  a  program  such  as
     ctags,  and  consists of a number of lines with three fields
     separated by blanks or tabs.  The first field gives the name
     of  the  tag,  the second the name of the file where the tag
     resides, and the third gives an addressing form which can be
     used  by the editor to find the tag; this field is usually a
     contextual scan using `/pat/' to be immune to minor  changes
     in  the file.  Such scans are always performed as if nomagic
     was set.

     The tag names in the tags file  must  be  sorted  alphabeti-
     cally.

unabbreviate word                       abbr: una

     Delete word from the list of abbreviations.

undo                                    abbr: u

     Reverses the changes made in the buffer by the  last  buffer
     editing  command. Note that global commands are considered a
     single command for the purpose of undo (as is visual.) Also,
     the commands write and edit which interact with the filesys-
     tem cannot be undone. Undo is its own inverse.

_________________________
* If you have modified the current file before giving a tag  com-
mand, you must write it out; giving another tag command, specify-
ing no tag will reuse the previous tag.

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     Undo always marks the previous value of the current line `.'
     as  ''.  After  an  undo  the current line is the first line
     restored or the line before the first  line  deleted  if  no
     lines  were  restored.  For commands with more global effect
     such as global and visual  the  current  line  regains  it's
     pre-command value after an undo.

unmap lhs

     The macro expansion associated by map for lhs is removed.

( 1 , $ ) v /pat/ cmds

     A synonym for the global command  variant  g!,  running  the
     specified cmds on each line which does not match pat.

version                                 abbr: ve

     Prints the current version number of the editor as  well  as
     the date the editor was last changed.

( . ) visual type count flags           abbr: vi

     Enters visual mode at the specified line. Type  is  optional
     and  may  be `-' , `^' or `.' as in the z command to specify
     the placement of  the  specified  line  on  the  screen.  By
     default, if type is omitted, the specified line is placed as
     the first on the screen. A count specifies an initial window
     size; the default is the value of the option window. See the
     document An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi for more
     details. To exit this mode, type Q.

visual file
visual +n file

     From visual mode, this command is the same as edit.

( 1 , $ ) write file                    abbr: w

     Writes changes made back to file,  printing  the  number  of
     lines  and  characters written. Normally file is omitted and
     the text goes back where it came from. If a file  is  speci-
     fied, then text will be written to that file.* If  the  file
_________________________
* The editor writes to a file only if it is the current file  and
is edited, if the file does not exist, or if the file is actually
a teletype, /dev/tty, /dev/null. Otherwise,  you  must  give  the
variant form w! to force the write.

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     does not exist, it is created.  The  current  file  name  is
     changed  only  if there is no current file name; the current
     line is never changed.

     If an error occurs while  writing  the  current  and  edited
     file,  the  editor  considers that there has been ``No write
     since last change'' even if the buffer  had  not  previously
     been modified.

( 1 , $ ) write>> file                  abbr: w>>

     Writes the buffer contents at the end of an existing file.

w! name

     Overrides the checking of the normal write command, and will
     write to any file which the system permits.

( 1 , $ ) w  !command

     Writes the specified lines into command. Note the difference
     between w! which overrides checks and w  ! which writes to a
     command.

wq name

     Like a write and then a quit command.

wq! name

     The variant overrides checking on  the  sensibility  of  the
     write command, as w! does.

xit name                                abbr: x

     If any changes have been made and not  written,  writes  the
     buffer out. Then, in any case, quits.

( . , . )yank buffer count              abbr: ya

     Places the specified lines in the named  buffer,  for  later
     retrieval via put. If no buffer name is specified, the lines
     go to a more volatile place; see the  put  command  descrip-
     tion.

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( .+1 ) z count

     Print the next count lines, default window.

( . ) z type count

     Prints a window of text with the specified line at the  top.
     If  type  is  `-',  the  line is placed at the bottom; a `.'
     causes the line to be placed in the center.* A  count  gives
     the  number  of lines to be displayed rather than double the
     number specified by the scroll option. On a CRT  the  screen
     is  cleared  before  display  begins unless a count which is
     less than the screen size is given. The current line is left
     at the last line printed.

! command

     The remainder of the line after the `!' character is sent to
     a shell to be executed. Within the text of command the char-
     acters `%' and `#' are expanded  as  in  filenames  and  the
     character `!' is replaced with the text of the previous com-
     mand. Thus, in particular, `!!' repeats the last such  shell
     escape.  If  any  such  expansion is performed, the expanded
     line will be echoed. The current line is unchanged  by  this
     command.

     If there has been  ``[No write]''  of  the  buffer  contents
     since the last change to the editing buffer, then a diagnos-
     tic will be printed before the  command  is  executed  as  a
     warning. A single `!' is printed when the command completes.

( addr , addr ) ! command

     Takes the specified address range and supplies it  as  stan-
     dard  input  to  command; the resulting output then replaces
     the input lines.

( $ ) =

     Prints the line number of the addressed  line.  The  current
     line is unchanged.

_________________________
* Forms `z=' and `z^' also exist; `z=' places the current line in
the  center, surrounds it with lines of `-' characters and leaves
the current line at this line.  The form `z^' prints  the  window
before  `z-'  would.   The characters `+', `^' and `-' may be re-
peated for cumulative effect. On some v2 editors, no type may  be
given.

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( . , . ) > count flags
( . , . ) < count flags

     Perform intelligent  shifting  on  the  specified  lines;  <
     shifts  left  and  >  shifts right. The quantity of shift is
     determined by the shiftwidth option and  the  repetition  of
     the  specification  character.  Only  whitespace (blanks and
     tabs) is shifted; no non-white characters are discarded in a
     left-shift.  The  current  line  becomes the last line which
     changed due to the shifting.

^D

     An end-of-file from a terminal  input  scrolls  through  the
     file.  The  scroll  option specifies the size of the scroll,
     normally a half screen of text.

( .+1 , .+1 )
( .+1 , .+1 )

     An address alone causes the addressed lines to be printed. A
     blank line prints the next line in the file.

( . , . ) & options count flags

     Repeats the previous substitute command.

( . , . ) ~ options count flags

     Replaces the previous regular expression with  the  previous
     replacement pattern from a substitution.

8. Regular expressions and substitute replacement patterns

8.1. Regular expressions

     A regular expression specifies a set of strings  of  charac-
ters.  A  member  of this set of strings is said to be matched by
the regular expression. Ex remembers two previous regular expres-
sions:  the previous regular expression used in a substitute com-
mand and the previous regular expression used elsewhere (referred
to  as  the  previous  scanning regular expression.) The previous
regular expression can always be referred to by a null  re,  e.g.
`//' or `??'.

8.2. Magic and nomagic

     The regular expressions allowed by ex are constructed in one

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of  two ways depending on the setting of the magic option. The ex
and vi default setting of magic gives quick access to a  powerful
set  of  regular  expression  metacharacters. The disadvantage of
magic is that the user must remember  that  these  metacharacters
are  magic and precede them with the character `\' to use them as
``ordinary'' characters. With nomagic,  regular  expressions  are
much  simpler,  there being only two metacharacters. The power of
the other metacharacters is  still  available  by  preceding  the
(now) ordinary character with a `\'. Note that `\' is thus always
a metacharacter.

     The remainder  of  the  discussion  of  regular  expressions
assumes that that the setting of this option is magic.*

8.3. Basic regular expression summary

     The following basic constructs are used to  construct  magic
mode regular expressions.

char           An ordinary character matches itself. The  charac-
               ters  `^'  at  the beginning of a line, `$' at the
               end of line, `*' as any character other  than  the
               first,  `.',  `\',  `[',  and `~' are not ordinary
               characters and must be escaped (preceded)  by  `\'
               to be treated as such.

^              At the beginning of a pattern forces the match  to
               succeed only at the beginning of a line.

$              At the end of  a  regular  expression  forces  the
               match to succeed only at the end of the line.

.              Matches any single character except  the  new-line
               character.

\<             Forces the match to occur only at the beginning of
               a ``variable'' or ``word''; that is, either at the
               beginning of a line,  or  just  before  a  letter,
               digit,  or underline and after a character not one
               of these.

\>             Similar to `\<', but matching the end of a ``vari-
               able''  or  ``word'',  i.e.  either the end of the
               line  or  before  character  which  is  neither  a
               letter, nor a digit, nor the underline character.

_________________________
* To discern what is true with nomagic it  suffices  to  remember
that  the only special characters in this case will be `^' at the
beginning of a regular expression, `$' at the end  of  a  regular
expression, and `\'. With nomagic the characters `~' and `&' also
lose their special meanings related to the replacement pattern of
a substitute.

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[string]       Matches  any  (single)  character  in  the   class
               defined  by  string.  Most  characters  in  string
               define themselves. A pair of characters  separated
               by  `-'  in  string  defines the set of characters
               collating between the specified  lower  and  upper
               bounds,  thus  `[a-z]'  as  a  regular  expression
               matches any (single)  lower-case  letter.  If  the
               first  character of string is an `^' then the con-
               struct matches those characters which it otherwise
               would  not;  thus  `[^a-z]' matches anything but a
               lower-case letter (and of course  a  newline).  To
               place  any  of  the characters `^', `[', or `-' in
               string you must escape them with a preceding `\'.

8.4. Combining regular expression primitives

     The concatenation of two  regular  expressions  matches  the
leftmost  and  then  longest string which can be divided with the
first piece matching the first regular expression and the  second
piece matching the second. Any of the (single character matching)
regular expressions mentioned above may be followed by the  char-
acter  `*'  to form a regular expression which matches any number
of adjacent occurrences (including 0) of  characters  matched  by
the regular expression it follows.

     The character `~' may be used in a regular  expression,  and
matches  the  text which defined the replacement part of the last
substitute command. A regular expression may be enclosed  between
the  sequences  `\(' and `\)' with side effects in the substitute
replacement patterns.

8.5. Substitute replacement patterns

     The basic metacharacters for the replacement pattern are `&'
and  `~';  these  are given as `\&' and `\~' when nomagic is set.
Each instance of `&' is replaced by the characters which the reg-
ular  expression  matched.  The  metacharacter `~' stands, in the
replacement pattern,  for  the  defining  text  of  the  previous
replacement pattern.

     Other metasequences possible in the replacement pattern  are
always  introduced  by  the  escaping character `\'. The sequence
`\n' is replaced by the text matched by the n-th  regular  subex-
pression enclosed between `\(' and `\)'.* The sequences `\u'  and
`\l' cause the immediately following character in the replacement
to be converted to upper-  or  lower-case  respectively  if  this
character  is  a  letter.  The  sequences `\U' and `\L' turn such
conversion on, either until `\E' or `\e' is encountered, or until
the end of the replacement pattern.
_________________________
* When nested, parenthesized subexpressions  are  present,  n  is
determined  by  counting  occurrences  of  `\(' starting from the
left.

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9. Option descriptions

autoindent, ai                default: noai

     Can be used to ease the preparation  of  structured  program
     text.  At  the  beginning  of each append, change, or insert
     command or when a new  line  is  opened  or  created  by  an
     append,  change,  insert,  or  substitute  operation  within
     visual mode, ex looks at the line being appended after,  the
     first  line  changed  or the line inserted before and calcu-
     lates the amount of whitespace at the start of the line.  It
     then aligns the cursor at the level of indentation so deter-
     mined.

     If the user then types lines of text in, they will  continue
     to  be  justified  at the displayed indenting level. If more
     whitespace is typed at the beginning of a line, the  follow-
     ing line will start aligned with the first non-white charac-
     ter of the previous line. To  back  the  cursor  up  to  the
     preceding tab stop one can hit ^D. The tab stops going back-
     wards are defined at multiples of the shiftwidth option. You
     cannot  backspace over the indent, except by sending an end-
     of-file with a ^D.

     Specially processed in this mode is a line with  no  charac-
     ters  added  to it, which turns into a completely blank line
     (the whitespace provided for the autoindent  is  discarded.)
     Also  specially  processed  in this mode are lines beginning
     with a `^' and immediately followed by a ^D. This causes the
     input  to  be repositioned at the beginning of the line, but
     retaining the previous indent for the next line.  Similarly,
     a  `0'  followed  by  a  ^D repositions at the beginning but
     without retaining the previous indent.

     Autoindent doesn't happen in global  commands  or  when  the
     input is not a terminal.

autoprint, ap                 default: ap

     Causes the current line to be  printed  after  each  delete,
     copy,  join,  move,  substitute,  t, undo, or shift command.
     This has the same effect as supplying a trailing `p' to each
     such  command.  Autoprint is suppressed in globals, and only
     applies to the last of many commands on a line.

autowrite, aw                 default: noaw

     Causes the contents of the  buffer  to  be  written  to  the
     current  file  if  you  have  modified  it  and give a next,
     rewind, stop, tag, or ! command, or a ^^ (switch  files)  or

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     ^]  (tag  goto) command in visual. Note, that the ex command
     does not autowrite. In each case, there is an equivalent way
     of  switching  when  autowrite is set to avoid the autowrite
     (edit for next, rewind! for rewind, stop! for stop, tag! for
     tag,  shell  for  !, and :e # and a :ta! command from within
     visual).

beautify, bf                  default: nobeautify

     Causes all control characters except tab, newline and  form-
     feed  to  be  discarded  from  the  input.  A  complaint  is
     registered the first time  a  backspace  character  is  dis-
     carded. Beautify does not apply to command input.

directory, dir                default: dir=/tmp

     Specifies the directory in which ex places its buffer  file.
     If this directory in not writable, then the editor will exit
     abruptly when it fails to create its buffer there.

edcompatible                  default: noedcompatible

     Causes the presence or absence of g and c suffixes  on  sub-
     stitute  commands  to  be  remembered,  and to be toggled by
     repeating the suffices.  The suffix r makes the substitution
     be as in the ~ command, instead of like &.

errorbells, eb                default: noeb

     Error messages are preceded by a bell.* If possible the edi-
     tor  always  places  the error message in a standout mode of
     the terminal (such as inverse video) instead of ringing  the
     bell.

hardtabs, ht                  default: ht=0

     Gives the boundaries on which terminal hardware tabs are set
     (or on which the system expands tabs).

ignorecase, ic                default: noic

     All upper case characters in the text are  mapped  to  lower
     case  in regular expression matching. In addition, all upper
     case characters in regular expressions are mapped  to  lower
_________________________
* Bell ringing in visual mode on errors is not suppressed by set-
ting noeb.

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     case except in character class specifications.

list                          default: nolist

     All printed lines will be  displayed  (more)  unambiguously,
     showing tabs and end-of-lines as in the list command.

magic                         default: magic for ex and vi

     If nomagic is set, the number of  regular  expression  meta-
     characters  is greatly reduced, with only `^' and `$' having
     special effects. In addition the metacharacters `~' and  `&'
     of the replacement pattern are treated as normal characters.
     All the normal metacharacters may be made magic when nomagic
     is set by preceding them with a `\'.

mesg                          default: mesg

     Causes write permission to be turned  off  to  the  terminal
     while you are in visual mode, if nomesg is set.

modeline                      default: nomodeline

     If modeline is set, then the first 5 lines and the last five
     lines  of  the file will be checked for ex command lines and
     the commands issued. To be recognized as a command line, the
     line  must have the string ex: or vi: preceded by a tab or a
     space.  This string may be anywhere in the line and anything
     after  the  : is interpeted as editor commands.  This option
     defaults to off because of unexpected behavior when  editing
     files such as /etc/passwd.

number, nu                    default: nonumber

     Causes all output  lines  to  be  printed  with  their  line
     numbers. In addition each input line will be prompted for by
     supplying the line number it will have.

open                          default: open

     If noopen, the commands open and visual are not permitted.

optimize, opt                 default: optimize

     Throughput of text is expedited by setting the  terminal  to
     not  do  automatic  carriage returns when printing more than
     one (logical) line of output,  greatly  speeding  output  on

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     terminals without addressable cursors when text with leading
     whitespace is printed.

paragraphs, para              default: para=IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp

     Specifies the paragraphs for  the  {  and  }  operations  in
     visual  mode.  The pairs of characters in the option's value
     are the names of the macros which start paragraphs.

prompt                        default: prompt

     Command mode input is prompted for with a `:'.

redraw                        default: noredraw

     The editor simulates (using great  amounts  of  output),  an
     intelligent  terminal on a dumb terminal (e.g. during inser-
     tions in visual the characters to the right  of  the  cursor
     position  are  refreshed  as each input character is typed).
     Useful only at very high speed.

remap                         default: remap

     If on, macros are repeatedly tried until they are unchanged.
     For example, if o is mapped to O, and O is mapped to I, then
     if remap is set, o will map to I, but if noremap is set,  it
     will map to O.

report                        default: report=5

     Specifies a threshold for feedback from commands.  Any  com-
     mand  which modifies more than the specified number of lines
     will provide feedback as to the scope of  its  changes.  For
     commands  such  as global, open, undo, and visual which have
     potentially more far reaching scope, the net change  in  the
     number of lines in the buffer is presented at the end of the
     command, subject to this same threshold.  Thus  notification
     is suppressed during a global command on the individual com-
     mands performed.

scroll                        default: scroll=1/2 window

     Determines the number of  logical  lines  scrolled  when  an
     end-of-file  is  received  from  a terminal input in command
     mode, and the number of lines printed by a  command  mode  z
     command (double the value of scroll).

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sections                      default: sections=NHSHH HU

     Specifies the section macros for the [[ and ]] operations in
     visual  mode. The pairs of characters in the options's value
     are the names of the macros which start paragraphs.

shell, sh                     default: sh=/bin/sh

     Gives the path name of the shell forked for the shell escape
     command  `!', and by the shell command. The default is taken
     from SHELL in the environment, if present.

shiftwidth, sw                default: sw=8

     Gives the width a software tab stop, used in reverse tabbing
     with  ^D  when  using  autoindent to append text, and by the
     shift commands.

showmatch, sm                 default: nosm

     In open and visual mode, when a ) or } is  typed,  move  the
     cursor  to the matching ( or { for one second if this match-
     ing character is on the screen.

tabstop, ts                   default: ts=8

     The editor expands tabs in the input file to be  on  tabstop
     boundaries for the purposes of display.

taglength, tl                 default: tl=0

     Tags are not significant  beyond  this  many  characters.  A
     value  of  zero  (the default) means that all characters are
     significant.

tags                          default: tags=tags

     A path of files to be used as tag files for the tag command.
     A  requested  tag  is  searched  for in the specified files,
     sequentially. By default, files called tags are searched for
     in the current directory.

term                          from environment TERM

     The terminal type of the output device.

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terse                         default: noterse

     Shorter error diagnostics are produced for  the  experienced
     user.

warn                          default: warn

     Warn if there has been `[No write since last change]' before
     a `!' command escape.

window                        from environment LINES

     The number of lines in a text window in the visual  command.
     The  default  is  8 at slow speeds (600 baud or less), 16 at
     medium speed (1200 baud), and the  full  screen  (minus  one
     line) at higher speeds.

w300, w1200 w9600

     These are not true options but set window only if the  speed
     is  slow (300), medium (1200), or high (9600), respectively.
     They are suitable for an EXINIT and make it easy  to  change
     the 8/16/full screen rule.

wrapscan, ws                  default: ws

     Searches using the regular expressions  in  addressing  will
     wrap around past the end of the file.

wrapmargin, wm                default: wm=0

     Defines a margin for automatic wrapover of text during input
     in visual mode.  See An Introduction to Text Editing with Vi
     for details.

writeany, wa                  default: nowa

     Inhibit the checks  normally  made  before  write  commands,
     allowing  a  write  to  any file which the system protection
     mechanism will allow.

10. Acknowledgements

     Chuck Haley contributed greatly to the early development  of
ex.  Bruce Englar encouraged the redesign which led to ex version
1. Bill Joy wrote versions 1 and 2.0 through 2.7, and created the
framework that users see in the present editor. Mark Horton added
macros and other features and made the editor  work  on  a  large

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number of terminals and Unix systems.

                        December 7, 2021

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